Install Linux without using physical DVD/USB drive

You want to install Linux ( Mint/Ubuntu or any other) OS in your old PC but the DVD drive is not working.

Don’t worry you can do it assuming that you can boot into your windows OS and have broadband Internet connection with sufficient disk space.


1. Download the Mint iso installer file
2. Download Virtual Clone drive
3. Install virtual clone drive on your system
5. Open the iso file and Mount it. If your clone drive is associated with the ISO extention then double clicking on the iso file will automatically mount.
6. Now you have virtual DVD drive with Linux DVD mounted.
7. You can now perform all the steps as it is done when installing from physical drive.


JMeter – Out of memory error

Are you getting “out of memory” error in JMeter while executing your tests?

This is most likely because of heap size. Your heap memory allocated to JMeter may be too less. By default this set to 512 MB. This setting is available in jmeter.bat file as shown below.

  • set HEAP=-Xms512m -Xmx512m
If increasing the heap size does not solve the problem, you may need to look into your scripts and remove unnecessary listeners. Some listeners are memory intensive like “View results in Tree”. As a best practice you should remove this once your script is ready for execution and only used while debugging the script.
Also, try to minimize the number of request in one Test Plan. Having everything in one Test Plan is not recommended unless the scenario requires you to do. In that case have very high end machine with good RAM.

How to force install apps to SD card without ROOT

Force install apps to SD card without ROOT

Samsung Galaxy Ace has only got 180 MBs of Internal memory. If you install a lot of apps, you are bound to run into low disk space issues. To force your new apps to install on SD card perform the following steps:
  1. First you have to enable USB debugging on your Android device from Settings > Applications > Development > USB debugging.
  2. Download and install the latest Android SDK on your computer from
  3. Install the latest Java SDK.
  4. Extract the package to the folder of your choice [e.g. C:/android-sdk-windows/], run SDK Manager.exe
  5. In the new window, click on Available Packages to the left. Uncheck all options you are prompted to download except the USB driver option. USB driver option will need an additional packages called Android SDK tools revision x(13 as of this time) & android sdk platform-tools revision x(7 as of this time) at the top of the list.
  6. Do not open Samsung Kies. Connect your phone to your computer with a USB-cable. Your OS will prompt you to install new drivers. Choose to install them from the android-sdk-windows/extras/google/usb_driver folder. Do not mount your device; you only need to plug-in the cable.(If you don’t see this prompt, that means you have USB drivers already installed.
  7. Run command prompt in administrator and execute the following command

cd C:\android-sdk-windows\platform-tools
adb devices

A list of devices attached should come. Run following command
adb shell
A $ sign should pop up.
pm setInstallLocation 2

And you’re done!! Close everything, disconnect phone, reboot & enjoy!!

Now the phone will be set to install all apps you install onto the SD card. However, already installed apps on phone will have to be manually moved if on phone memory.

How to remove windows default share?

Windows default share C$, D$ etc are recreated on machine restart or restarting the server service. To remove these share we can add a batch file which will remove the share. This batch file can be executed every time the machine is restarted by placing it in startup folder.

Create a batch file with following text

net share c$ /delete
net share d$ /delete

and save it as shareremove.bat(as an example). You can provide any name of your choice.

Copy this file in windows startup folder.

Now every time the machine is restarted the two shared drives c$ and D$ are removed from share.

MAC Address Spoofing

To change MAC-Address for a Network card in Windows Registry:

  1. Click Start – Run, type “regedit”
  2. Navigate to




3. Under this key, you shoud see numbers in sequence as “0000″, “0001″ and so on. Click on one at a time to check the description of the device to match it with that of your Network Card. In my case (0001)


4. Once found, in the right-pane, look for “NetworkAddress” key value. If you find it, right-click and select modify. Enter the desired MAC-Address as a 12 digit number (all in one, no “space” “.” or “-”)

5. If you don’t find the key, right-click in the rightpane, select “New” – “String Value”. Enter the name as “NetworkAddress”. Now modify and set the desired value.

6. Now, disable and enable the Network card from the ControlPanel – Network Connections.

This should reflect the new MAC-Address on your NIC. Should you choose to go back to the original manufacturer set MAC-Address simply delete the key you just created/modified in the Windows Registry.


You can also use a tool like Technitium MAC Address Changer to change the MAC-Address of your NIC

Compiling and Installing Custom Linux Kernel

Compiling and Installing Custom Linux Kernel
The below mentioned steps will work in Ubuntu or debian like systems. I have tested it on Ubuntu 10.10.
Download and unzip(preparing)
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install kernel-package libncurses5-dev fakeroot wget bzip2
Download the kernel sources and unzip as shown below.
sudo tar xjf linux- ln -s linux- linuxsudo cd /usr/src/linux

Configuring the Kernel
sudo cp /boot/config-`uname -r` ./.config
sudo make menuconfig
Then browse through the kernel configuration menu and make your choices. When you are finished and select Exit, answer the following question (Do you wish to save your new kernel configuration?) with Yes:
Build the Kernel
sudo make-kpkg cleansudo fakeroot make-kpkg –initrd –append-to-version=-custom_1.0 kernel_image kernel_headers
After –append-to-version= you can write any string that helps you identify the kernel, but it must begin with a minus (-) and must not contain whitespace.
Now be patient, the kernel compilation can take some hours, depending on your kernel configuration and your processor speed.
Install the new Kernel
sudo cd /usr/srcsudo ls -l
This will list the kernel files if everything was fine.
Install them like this:
sudo dpkg -i sudo dpkg -i
Now reboot the system
sudo shutdown -r now
If everything goes well, it should come up with the new kernel. You can check if it’s really using your new kernel by running
sudo uname -r

Unistalling the Kernel
Remove files
  1. /boot/vmlinuz*KERNEL-VERSION*
  2. /boot/initrd*KERNEL-VERSION*
  3. /boot/System-map*KERNEL-VERSION*
  4. /boot/config-*KERNEL-VERSION*
  5. /lib/modules/*KERNEL-VERSION*/
  6. /var/lib/initramfs-tools/
Run the command
sudo update-initramfs -k all -u

No Sound from Ubuntu linux or Mint

No Sound from Ubuntu linux or Mint
Searched google for possible answer to the problem but solution mentioned was not sufficient to solve my issues. I wasted couple of weekends resolving this issue.Finally I solved by removing PulseAudio and ALSA packages and installing OSS(Open Sound System)
What is OSS?OSS provides low -level audio drivers for users and a common API(application program interface) for developers. Unbutu and Mint by default uses ALSA ( Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) to provide audio drivers.

Does OSS support my hardware?

Check the list of supported hardware from the below link.

Preparing to install OSS

1. REMOVE Pulseaudio packages

sudo apt-get purge pulseaudio gstreamer0.10-pulseaudio

2. Removing ALSA packages

sudo /etc/init.d/alsa-utils stop

sudo apt-get remove alsa-base alsa-utils

3. Blacklisting ALSA Kernel Modules

sudo dpkg-reconfigure linux-sound-base

4. Installing Prerequisite Packages

The second command contains some recommended packages.

sudo apt-get install -y binutils libgtk2.0-0 sed gcc libc6

sudo apt-get install -y libesd0 libsdl1.2debian-oss


Installing OSS

1. Installing from DEB File

Download the OSS deb file from the 4front website( Before you install OSS, Reboot your system so that the ALSA modules will not load or interfere with it. When you log back in, use the terminal to install the OSS deb file (GDebi fails to install this .deb for some reason)

sudo dpkg -i oss-linux*.deb

Configuring Applications to Use OSS

Type ossxmix in your terminal to launch the mixer.


“I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work” –Thomas Edison