How to set-up Wireless on your Raspberry Pi

Step 1: Configuring WLAN Connection

Connect you USB Wifi adapter to your Raspberry Pi. Also, ensure that you are already connected to Ethernet cable. Boot your Pi int GUI and open the terminal window. Either directly on the Pi or through SSH.

Next, check that the USB dongle is detected by your Raspberry Pi – enter the command lsusb and check the results. The Wi-Fi device should be listed as shown below:

On the desktop, double-click WiFi Config and select wlan0 as the adapter. On the Current Status tab click Scan and wait for the results. All nearby wireless networks will be listed in a new window.

Select the network you wish to connect to, enter the password in the PSK field and then click Connect. Within seconds, your Raspberry Pi should be connected relentlessly, and you can remove the Ethernet cable.

Step 2: Ensuring Wireless Adapter Connects At Start-up

When you re-boot or shut down and start your Pi again, wireless adapter will not automatically connect. Therefore, if you try to connect via SSH or VNC you will not be able to do so.

To resolve this problem, we will modify network interface file. follow the following steps in your terminal window.

sudo cp /etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces.old

This will copy the existing interfaces file, renaming it to interfaces.old. If any problem occur with the edits you make, the original can be renamed and restored.

Next, open the interfaces file in a text editor such as vi:

sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces

Update the section dedicated to your wireless device, replacing as mentioned below:

auto wlan0

allow-hotplug wlan0

iface wlan0 inet manual

wpa-roam /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

sudo shutdown -r now

After the change restart the Pi. Refer the screenshot below:

When the device reboots, the USB wireless dongle will automatically connect to the previously configured network!

How to Install Linux Bash shell on Windows 10

Latest windows update allows you to have a full Ubuntu-based Bash shell. This allows you to run the Bash shell and the exact same binaries that you would normally run on Ubuntu Linux.

To get started with bash make sure you are using correct version of Windows.

We would need Windows 10 creators update and a 64 bit version of the Windows 10.

Install Linux bash shell

To install Linix bash shell on windows follow the following steps.

Step 1 – Activate the developer mode

Update & Security > For Developers. Activate the “Developer Mode” as shown below:

enable developer mode

Step2: Enable the Windows Subsystem for Linux (Beta)

Next, open the Control Panel, click “Programs,” and click “Turn Windows Features on or Off” under Programs and Features. Enable the “Windows Subsystem for Linux (Beta)” option in the list here and click “OK.” After this it will ask you to reboot.

Step 3:

After your computer restarts, open windows command prompt and type bash as shown below. The first time you run the bash.exe file, it will prompt to accept the terms of service. The command will then download the “Bash on Ubuntu on Windows” application from the Windows Store. It will ask you to create a user account and password for use in the Bash environment.

What can you do with bash shell on windows?

  • You would be able to use standard Linux SSH utility and discard third party tool like putty.
  • You will be able to edit text with VIM from the command line, and manipulate text using Sed and Awk.
  • You can also, apt-get to manage their packages, and to install tens of thousands of Ubuntu binaries.
  • Basically its good utility for developer/administrators. These may not be very useful to general users. But if you are interested in learning Linux you can start it from here without going into the complexity to install LINUX.

How to install Linux on Windows 10 machine?

Introduction

This blog will show you how to install Linux on Windows 10 machine without dual boot option and partitioning your hard drive. In this method we will be using a software called Virtualbox from Oracle. It will allow you to run other operating systems on top of your current OS.  You can use any version of Linux. I will be using Ubuntu 16.04.2.

Following are the high level steps required to install Linux on Windows 10.

Steps Required To Install Linux On Windows 10

Step 1 - Downloads

  • Download Oracle Virtualbox and virtual box extension pack and install from here.
  • Download Linux from here

Step 2 - Creating Ubuntu virtual machine within Oracle Virtual box. 

Install Virtualbox and create a Ubuntu virtual machine

  • Click on the "New" option on the toolbar
  • Enter a descriptive name into the "Name" box
    • Select Linux as the "Type"
    • Choose Ubuntu as the "Version".
    • Click "Next" to continue.

Note:
Choose a correct version of UBUNTU i.e 32 or 64 bit.
If VirtualBox is only showing 32 bit versions in the Version list make sure:
▪ Your Host OS is 64-bits
▪ Intel Virtualization Technology and VT-d are both enabled in the BIOS
▪ The Hyper-V platform is disabled in your Windows Feature list.

  • Allocate Memory to the virtual machine. For Ubuntu16.04.2 2 GB is sufficient but you can allocate more if you have sufficient memory.
  • Create a virtual hard drive. Select default VDI as the hard drive type. Also while selecting physical disk, you can select fixed size or dynamically allocated size. Note that there is no partitioning on your actual hard disk. All that happens is that a file is created on your computer which acts as the hard drive.

Step 3 - Install Ubuntu within Virtual box

Start the Virtual Machine. The first boot requires you to select a start-up disk. You can mount the iso file downloaded earlier. Follow step by step process of installing. I will not cover the details of installing here.

Step 4 - Install Vbox Guest edition(optional)
Download and install Virtualbox Guest Additions
Installing guest editions will help you scale Ubuntu properly in full screen mode.

Essential Linux utilities/softwares

Linux Mint or Ubuntu comes with lot of software and utilities which is sufficient in most cases.

Few extra essential must have utilities are as follows:

1. digiKam

Features

  • It can easily import photos from your camera, flash drive, or hard drive
  • Organize photos in albums and sub-albums, complete with comments and tags for easy navigation of large libraries
  • Automatically sort albums and photos by folder, category, date, file size, and more
  • Drag and drop photos from digiKam to other KDE applications
  • Support for over 300 RAW file formats
  • Compare similar pictures side by side
  • Geotag photos and view albums on a global map
  • Fix issues like red eye, color, and lighting with just a few buttons
  • Supports a number of plugins for the image editor
  • Create slideshows, calendars, and other creations with your photos
  • Share your photos via email or social networks like Flickr, Picasa, SmugMug, Facebook, and more  digiKam

Plus (+)
It is designed for the more professional side of photographers, supporting tons of features for managing large libraries, editing your photos, and exporting them to other services. It’s by far the most feature-filled photo manager on Linux, which easily puts it into the top slot.

Drawback (-)

As with most feature-packed programs, digiKam’s biggest downfall is that its interface is cluttered, confusing, and really overwhelming to new or casual users.

Similar tools

  • Shotwell (default photo manager in Ubuntu.
  • F-Spot
  • gThumb (Default in Linux Mint). It is a photo manager that is very basic compared to the rest, but in a lot of ways that is what makes it great. It uses the folder structure of your pictures folder to browse everything, rather than a database, and contains basic photo editing tools. It is the perfect companion if you just want to manage your photos on your hard drive, but occasionally edit, bookmark, or create slideshows with your images.

2. Deluge

Features

  • Download torrents (obviously) and manage/prioritize multiple torrents
  • Automatically download torrents through torrent RSS feeds (via a plugin)
  • Rich plugin collection that lets you add only the features you want
  • Monitor and control your torrent downloads remotely, from any computer or mobile device
  • Schedule its bandwidth usage, so it isn’t using too much data when you need it
  • Encryption, DHT, UPnP/NAT-PMP, Proxy, and lots of other advanced features

Plus(+)

Deluge aims to be a simple, cross-platform, feature-rich client, and it does it well. The plugin architecture is especially nice, so you can add on just the features you want instead of downloading a “bloated”, feature-filled app. Its GUI is pretty easy to use, especially those coming from something like uTorrent on Windows, and its advanced features like remote access and bandwidth scheduling are must-haves for any BitTorrent user.Deluge

Drawback(-)

Deluge is written in Python, which allows it to be cross-platform, but not quite as lightweight as some other clients. As such, if you’re using a particularly old computer, you might not like Deluge since you’ll be delegating a lot of RAM to the simple task of downloading files.

Similar tools

  • qBitTorrent is the best alternative.The two are very similar with minor differnces in features.
  • KTorrent is a great option for KDE users
  • Transmission is great if you want something super lightweight and simple
  • Vuze is a popular client for very advanced users, offering more features than most other clients out there. rTorrent is a popular client that differs a lot from the other option in the sense that it has no GUI. Instead, you run it in a terminal, and you can remotely monitor it via SSH for an insanely lightweight BitTorrent experience. It’s definitely not your traditional client, but Terminal nuts out there will probably love it for its simplicity.

3. conky

Features

  • Displays statistics for CPU, disk, memory, top processes, network, and more anywhere on your desktop
  • Built-in POP and IMAP support for displaying email notifications
  • Supports many popular Linux music players
  • Text-based configuration allows for a high level of customization
  • Very light on system resources

Plus(+)

Conky is quite versatile, in the sense that it lets you configure every piece of data that shows up on your desktop overlay, from things like system stats to email and music. And, even though you configure everything through a text file. You can even download sample configuration files from the Conky web site and just load those up, without ever having to dig into them yourself.

Drawbacks(-)

While its text-based configuration is pretty easy at the beginning, it can get quite a bit more complicated if you want to create something really good-looking. Its other downside is that while it generally works out of the box with GNOME, it can sometimes be a little weird in other desktop environments.

Similar tools

  • GKrellM is a super easy, but less configurable desktop system
  • If you prefer something more widget-like, you can check out Screenlets, which not only have transparent overlays like Conky, but colorful widgets like those found in Windows.
  • If you just want to check up on your system, you can easily run a command like top to see your CPU usage, free to check your memory usage, or iostat to check CPU and disk usage. Your distro probably also comes with a system monitor of its own, like the GNOME System Monitor in Ubuntu, for quick checks.

4. SMPLayer

Features

  • Can play a ton of different video types without the need for additional codecs
  • Remembers all your settings for every file you play—from playback position to subtitles to filters and equalizer settings
  • Configure font, size, and colors for subtitles
  • Switch audio tracks right from the menu
  • Seek through videos using the mouse wheel
  • Video equalizer lets you adjust the brightness, contrast, hue, saturation, and gamma of the video image
  • Apply multiple filters like deinterlace, postprocessing, denoise, and even karaoke-like voice removal
  • Create playlists with several video files that will play one after the other. Repeat and shuffle also supported
  • Search automatically for subtitles on opensubtitles.orgSMplayer

Plus(+)

SMPlayer is just a GUI frontend for MPlayer, but it is one of the best MPlayer frontend due to its number of features. You can tweak all sorts of settings applying to video playback, whether it be using the video equalizer or the advanced filters, to make sure your video looks as good as possible. It also has a ton of advanced settings in its Preferences menu for advanced users, and anyone can easily create video playlists to play videos one after the other.
The best thing is its ability to remember everything about each individual file you play. When you tweak a video—whether that be increasing the brighness, adding a deinterlace filter, or viewing it with customized subtitles—SMPlayer will remember all those tweaks the next time you start up that file, and start playing it where you left off with all those tweaks in place.

Drawbacks(-)

SMPlayer’s is not the prettiest. It also has lots of settings in its Preferences, which can seem overwhelming to new users, but its regular interface is far simpler. SMPlayer also has trouble with DVD menus, which is a big drawback—if you plan on watching DVDs (or full DVD images), you will need something like VLC instead.

Similar Tools

No video player is perfect, and everyone has different preferences, so SMPlayer may not be right for everybody.

  • VLC is the most obvious competition, and while itis also very feature-filled. It comes by default with most linux distros.VLC can play DVD menus like a champ—an area where SMPLayer fails—and every once in a while you might find a file that do not work in SMPlayer, but works in VLC. VLC is a great fallback player since it can play pretty much any video file you throw at it.
  • If you prefer something a bit simpler, you might try other MPlayer-based players, like GNOME MPlayer or even the command line version of MPlayer. Both offer you a fair amount of settings, while keeping extremely simple interfaces for video playback.
  • UMPlayer is also pretty cool, with some advanced features along with a YouTube search bar at the top of the player for easy access to web videos on your desktop.
  • Kaffeine, if you are using KDE (or just want a super user-friendly player). Kaffeine does a great job of making it easy to play a playlist, video file, or DVD right form its nice Start menu, and does not clutter up the interface with too many buttons. It also supports TV tuners (if you have one installed in your machine).

5. VLC

It does not require much explanation. It is one of the best video player across platforms. Most linux distros have this tool by default. In fact in early days of my Linux use, some 4-5 years ago I was using my Linux OS just because of using VLC to play my videos.

6.  Banshee audio player

Features

  • Store and play your music, videos, podcasts, and audiobooks all in one library
  • Create and manage playlists and smart playlists that update based on custom filters
  • Enqueue songs into a “Now Playing” pane for on-the-go playlist creation.
  • Watch folders on your hard drive for changes and automatically adjust your library accordingly
  • Import libraries from Amarok, Rhythmbox, and iTunes
  • Sync iPod, iPhone, Android, and many other portable music devices with your library
  • Listen to and rip audio CDs
  • Set a bookmark on any song, video, or podcast and return to that point later
  • Fix broken and missing metadata using bulk operations
  • Mini-player from which you can control Banshee through a small window
  • Wikipedia context pane that provides information about the currently playing artist
  • Integration with internet radio, DAAP, Miro, Last.fm, and the Amazon MP3 store

Smilar tools

  • Rhythmbox is Banshee’s biggest competition, having been the default player in Ubuntu for a long time before it was replaced with Banshee in 11.04.
  • Amarok, designed for the KDE desktop environment
  • Exaile and Clementine are great music players for those that miss Amarok 1.4 interface.

7.  GIMP(GNU Image Manipulation Program)

Most Linux distros have GIMP installed by default.It is one of the best image manipulation software.

Features

  • Customizable Interface
  • Photo Enhancement
  • Digital Retouching
  • Support for various input devices out of the box
  • File formats – The file format support ranges from the common likes of JPEG (JFIF), GIF, PNG, TIFF to special use formats such as the multi-resolution and multi-color-depth Windows icon files. The architecture allows to extend GIMP’s format capabilities with a plug-in.
  • It supports multiple Platforms like
    1. GNU/Linux (i386, PPC)
    2. Microsoft Windows (XP, Vista)
    3. Mac OS X
    4. Sun OpenSolaris
    5. FreeBSD

There are many more tools and utilities that you may be using. Feel free to comment on your favorite.

 

How to Remove Old Linux Kernel?

Whenever Ubuntu updates to a new Linux kernel, the old one is left behind and the boot menu gets longer. If your new Linux kernel is working fine, then it is safe to remove the old one and clean up the boot menu.

  1. Go to Applications (or Main Menu) > Accessories > Terminal.
  2. Enter uname -r to print the Linux kernel version you are running( example 3.11.0-12-generic )
  3. Go to Synaptic Package Manager. Menu option may vary depending on the version of Linux and desktop used.
  4. Click Status from the left panel and select Installed.
  5. Enter the main version number (e.g. 3.11.0) in the Search box.
  6. Right-click the items with smaller sub version number (e.g. 3.11.0-10) for older Linux kernel and select Mark for Complete Removal. The files for the older version to remove may include linux-headers-3.11.0-10, linux-headers-3.11.0-10-generic and linux-image-3.11.0-10-generic.
  7. Click Apply from the top panel.
  8. Click Apply again from the pop-up window to confirm removal of the marked packages. The boot menu will be cleaned up automatically after the removal is confirmed.

Do take these steps carefully as incorrect removal of the items can make your system unbootable.

How to access Linux partitions from Windows

I have been using Linux as my default OS but sometime I also use Windows as my Sony Handy cam software does not work in Linux. Sometime there are needs to access files from one OS to other. Linux has a built in support to NTFS partitions but windows do not have. To access Linux partitions from windows you need some third part tools.

Below are few tools that can be used to access Linux Partitions from windows.

  1. Ext2Fsd
  2. DiskInternals Linux Reader
  3. Ext2explore

Ext2Fsd

Ext2Fsd is a Windows file system driver for the Ext2, Ext3, and Ext4 file systems. It allows Windows to read Linux file systems natively, providing access to the file system via a drive letter that any program can access. This also supports writing to Linux partitions.

Ext2FSD

 

DiskInterals Linux Reader

Linux Reader is a freeware application from DiskInternals, developers of data recovery software. In addition to the Ext file systems, Linux Reader also supports ReiserFS and Apple’s HFS and HFS+ file systems. It is read-only, so it cannot damage your Linux file system. Linux Reader does not provide access via a drive letter. It is a separate application you launch to browse your Linux partitions.

Diskinternals

 

diskinternals_2

 

Ext2explore

It is an open-source application that works similarly to DiskInternals Linux Reader — but only for Ext4, Ext3, and Ext2 partitions. It does not have to be installed, you can just download the .exe and run it. The Ext2explore.exe program must be run as administrator else you will get an error.

ext2explore_1

 

How to install KDE desktop in Linux Mint 15 Olivia

To add the KDE desktop environment to Linux Mint 15

1. Open a terminal window.

2. Type in the following commands then hit Enter after each.

KDE Standard

sudo apt-get install kde-standard

KDE Full Package

sudo apt-get install kde-full

KDE Plasma Desktop

sudo apt-get install kde-plasma-desktop

KDE Plasma Netbook Edition

sudo apt-get install kde-plasma-netbook

Kubuntu Desktop

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop

 

How to upgrade to Linux Mint 15

Linux Mint 15 RC is out. If you are using Mint 14 and want to move to new version you can follow the steps below.

Waring: It is not recommended method and should be followed only at your own risks. Recommended method of upgrade is installing from ISO file.

Steps to follow:

  • Using a text editor (as root), replace the contents of /etc/apt/sources.list with the following sources list:
deb http://packages.linuxmint.com/ olivia main upstream import
 deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ raring main restricted universe multiverse
 deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ raring-updates main restricted universe multiverse
 deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ raring-security main restricted universe multiverse
 deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu/ raring partner
 deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ raring free non-free
  • Run ‘apt-get update’
  • Run ‘apt-get dist-upgrade’.

Follow the instructions issued, don’t worry about overwriting configuration files. It will take some time depending on your internet speed and system configuration.

  • Run ‘apt-get upgrade’
  • Reboot

You are done with upgrade to Linux Mint 15.

 

How to add new fonts to your Linux system

Adding New Fonts to Your System

Installing Microsoft Fonts

sudo apt-get install ttf-mscorefonts-installer

 System-wide Installation

To install fonts to your system for use by all users, (as root) you can place the font files somewhere under /usr/share/fonts or /usr/share/fonts/truetype. Alternatively, if the fonts reside elsewhere on your system, as root, you can also link to the directory.

Continue reading “How to add new fonts to your Linux system”

Share Files in Linux

How to Share files in Linux?

In order to share files in Linux, you need to have following installed in your system.

  • samba
  • samba-common

If it is not installed, first install it.

To Install:

sudo apt-get install samba

Once the server is install, issue the following command:

sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

Make the following changes:

workgroup = WORKGROUP


underneath it, add

netbios name = name_of_your_server (no spaces)

For example:

netbios name = pintu_smb_server
Make sure “security” is set to “user”.

Scroll down until you see “[homes]”, set:

browseable = yes
writable = yes
Then save the changes.

Finally, create a SMB user, make sure this account exists on your Ubuntu Linux.

Command:

sudo smbpasswd -a `whoami`
and set your password

There are two ways to access it:

  1. My network places > Entire Network > My Windows Network > Workgroup
  2. In the address type in “\\[whatever you named the Samba server]”. From my example above, I used “\\pintu_smb_server\“.

You should see a folder call “homes”, click on it, and it will ask you for your username and password. Enter your Ubuntu Login Name and whatever you choose for the password when you used command “smbpasswd”.
Keep in mind that you are sharing, /home/[login name]/*