10 Stage LED Sequencer

10 Stage LED Sequencer

LED Chaser

Components

 

  • IC1- CD4017
  • IC2- NE555
  • C1 – 1μ
  • C2- 0.01 μ
  • R1 – 470 Ω
  • R2 – 100 KΩ
  • R3- 100 Ω
  • LED1-10 – RED LED
  • 9volt DC power supply.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For power supply you can use 9 volt battery or can design separate power supply using step down transformer and 1N4007 diodes.

Variable DC Power Supply using LM317

Below is the circuit for variable dc power supply

sshot-1

R1- 240 Ω

R2- 5K VR

R2 can be replaced by fixed value resistor for fixed power supply. Following formula can be used to calculate output voltage.

Vo=1.25(1+R2/R1)

Output voltage should be2 voltage greater than input.

Parts for current setup

  •  D1, D2 – 1N4001
  • C1-0.1 μ
  • C2 – 10 μ 50v
  • voltage regulator – LM317

20 Watt Inverter

This circuit will drive a 40 watt fluorescent or two 20-watt tubes in series. The transformer is wound on a ferrite rod 10mm dia and 8cm long. The wire diameters is 0.61mm wire for the primary and 0.28mm wire for the secondary and feedback winding.

The circuit will take approx. 1.5amp on 12v, making it more efficient than running the tubes from the mains. A normal fluorescent takes 20 watts for the tube and about 15 watts for the ballast.

20wattfluro

Note: Do not remove the tube when the circuit is operating as the spikes produced by the transformer will damage the transistor.

Parts list

  • Transistor – BC338 and TIP 3055
  • Resistance – 47 K, 47 R, 180 R, 2R2
  • Variable Resistance – 100k
  • Capacitors – 100u 16v, 100n
  • On/Off Switch
  •  1 ferrite rod 10mm in 8mm long
  • 30 m winding wire .28mm dia
  • 4 m winding wire .61mm dia
  • 2* 20 watt tube or 1* 40 watt tube
  • 12 v DC power supply

LED Basics

Today LED has become an integral part of consumer electronics.

LED TV, LED Display, LED Lights and so on. These are becoming very popular because of there low power consumption.

What is LED?
LED stands for Light emitting diode.

A light emitting diode is essentially a PN junction semiconductor diode that emits a monochromatic(single) colour light when operated in a forward biased direction.

For detail in technical evolution refer the following url

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode

Early LEDs were only bright enough to be used as indicators, or in the displays of early calculators and digital watches. More recently they have been starting to appear in higher brightness applications.

LED Basics – Characteristics voltage drop

When a LED is connected around the correct way in a circuit it develops a voltage across

it called the CHARACTERISTIC VOLTAGE DROP. A LED must be supplied with a voltage that is higher than its “CHARACTERISTIC VOLTAGE”  via a resistor – called a VOLTAGE DROPPING RESISTOR or CURRENT LIMITING RESISTOR

How LED works?

LED and resistor are placed in series and connected to a voltage.As the voltage rises from 0v, nothing happens until the voltage reaches about 1.7v. At this voltage a red LED just starts to glow. As the voltage increases, the voltage across the LED remains at 1.7v but the current through the LED increases and it gets brighter. As the current increases to 5mA, 10mA, 15mA, 20mA the brightness will increase and at 25mA, it will be a maximum.

This is just a simple example as each LED has a different CHARACTERISTIC VOLTAGE DROP and a different maximum current.

In the diagram below we see a LED on a 3v supply, 9v supply and 12v supply. The current-limiting resistors are different and the first circuit takes 6mA, the second takes 15mA and the third takes 31mA. But the voltage across the red LED is the same in all cases.

LED Basics – Head Voltage

As the supply-voltage increases, the voltage across the LED will be constant at 1.7v (for a red LED) and the excess voltage will be dropped across the resistor. The supply can be any voltage from 2v to 12 or more. The resistor will drop 0.3v to 10.3v. This is called HEAD VOLTAGE.

The voltage dropped across this resistor, combined with the current, constitutes wasted energy and should be kept to a minimum.

 

 

 

Most supplies are derived from batteries and the voltage will drop as the cells are used.

Here is an example of a problem:
Supply voltage: 12v
7 red LEDs in series = 11.9v
Dropper resistor = 0.1v
As soon as the supply drops to 11.8v, no LEDs will be illuminated.

Example 2:
Supply voltage 12v
5 green LEDs in series @ 2.1v = 10.5v
Dropper resistor = 1.5v
The battery voltage can drop to 10.5v
Suppose the current @ 12v = 25mA.
As the voltage drops, the current will drop.
At 11.5v, the current will be 17mA
At 11v, the current will be 9mA
At 10.5v, the current will be zero

Many batteries drop 1v and still have over 80% of their energy remaining. That’s why you should design your circuit to have a large HEAD VOLTAGE.

Some Basic circuits using LED

1. Polarity Tester

 

2. Continuity Tester

 

3. USB Reading Lamp

http://digitalab.org/2012/08/usb-reading-lamp/